Mon. Jul 15th, 2024

Nursing homes: should prices be adjusted based on residents’ means?

By b0oua Mar 27, 2024
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It is possible to establish higher costs for residents of nursing homes who do not receive social assistance for accommodation (ASH) according to a clause that is included in the Aging Well law, which is scheduled to be adopted on Wednesday, March 27.

Parliamentarians were elected with the intention of easing the financial burdens that are placed on public institutions.

In addition to being the rapporteur of the law on aging well, Laurence Cristol is the Renaissance deputy for Hérault.

When the law governing aged wells was being drafted, this precaution was not taken into consideration….

to determine whether or if the publication of Nursing Home Compare (NHC) data had an impact on the costs of self-pay per diems and the quality of care provided.

The Annual Survey of Wisconsin Nursing Homes for 2001–2003, the Online Survey and Certification Reporting System, the National Health Council, and the Area Resource File are the primary sources of data and information.

Our estimations of fixed effects models included robust standard errors of per diem self-pay charge and quality both before and after the implementation of NHC.

Low-quality nursing homes increased their costs by a little but significant amount after the National Health Care Act (NHC), and they reduced the number of restraints they used, but they did not lower the number of pressure sores. High-quality and mid-level nursing homes did not experience a significant increase in self-pay costs following the implementation of NHC, nor did they regularly alter their quality.

According to the results of our investigation, the dissemination of quality information had an effect on the behavior of nursing homes, particularly with regard to pricing and quality decisions made by low-quality facilities.

In addition to continuing to monitor quality and pricing for tenants who pay for their own housing, policymakers should also continue to examine low-quality homes over time to determine whether or not they are on the path to improving their quality. In addition, policymakers should not anticipate that increased public reporting will result in immediate solutions to issues about the quality of nursing homes.

In recent years, there has been a significant adoption of public quality reporting for health care providers in the United States. It is anticipated that the enhanced transparency that would emerge from the implementation of report cards will push providers to improve quality in order to either satisfy the demand of consumers or to enhance the reputation of the providers (Berwick, James, and Coye 2003; Stevenson 2006).

Through the use of value-based pricing, report cards may also assist in aligning the costs of service providers with the quality of the services they deliver, as well as in facilitating value-based purchasing strategies among customers. For this kind of provider and consumer behavior to take place, however, customers need to have access to information regarding both the cost and the quality of the care they are going to receive before they actually receive it.

For the vast majority of health care services in the United States, individual consumers do not have access to pertinent data regarding quality and cost. Since this is the case, there is no motivation for suppliers to modify their prices and quality in order to better align themselves with one another.

In instance, consumers are only aware of the amount of their copayments and deductibles for many insured treatments, and they do not have any information regarding the prices of providers after taking into account any discounts that may be applicable. As a consequence of this, even if there are some high-quality data being made public, there is not enough information regarding the prices that customers should anticipate paying. Both value-based pricing and purchasing are expected to be hindered as a result of this.

It is important to note that the market conditions for long-term care (LTC) nursing home services that are provided by private (self-pay) facilities are distinct. It is possible for individual customers or members of their families to acquire the real per diem nursing home fee that they will be billed in advance by calling or meeting with a member of the admissions staff.

In November of 2002, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began posting six long-stay quality measures (QMs) and four short-stay quality measures (QMs) on the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) website. This made it possible for nursing facilities to provide quality information to their residents.1 CMS initiated this endeavor by launching a media campaign with the purpose of informing customers.

For the purpose of determining whether or not nursing homes altered their pricing following the release of the NHC data, we make use of the fact that price information is readily available and that quality data has been introduced in the private nursing home market. In addition, we investigate whether or not quality adjustments were made. We are the first research after NHC to investigate both the cost of nursing homes and the quality of care they provide. There is a significant amount of self-pay volume, which accounted for 33 percent of nursing home care costs in 2005 (Catlin et al. 2007). This is despite the fact that Medicaid is the primary payer for nursing facilities.

According to Colonel (2003), consumers primarily act as individual purchasers when using price information. This is due to the fact that there is a very limited amount of long-term care insurance in the United States, and the market penetration of long-term care insurers is too low to allow for price negotiations or the selection of providers. Databases at the state level, but not at the national level, contain information on self-pay per diem prices. Because of this, we look at data for nursing homes in Wisconsin during the period of time extending from 2001 to 2003, which includes two years before and one year after the implementation of the NHC Quality Measures. On the other hand, during this time period, nursing facilities in Wisconsin had a sizeable percentage of residents who paid for their own care (23 percent).

The amount of empirical study that investigates whether or whether the pricing of nursing homes are reflective of quality either before or after the initial NHC Quality Management report is limited. Ballou (2002) discovered that there was minimal evidence to suggest that there was a connection between the quality of nursing homes in Wisconsin and the private pay pricing or markup between the years 1984 and 1995.

An analysis conducted by Stewart, Grabowski, and Lakdawalla (2009) found that between the years 1977 and 2004, the prices of private pay nursing homes in the United States increased at a rate that was higher than both the medical care and consumer price indexes. During the same time span, the researchers report an increase in two criteria that may be connected to quality: staffing and dedicated units catering to individuals with cognitive impairments. On the other hand, they were unable to reach the conclusion that the increase in nursing home prices was a reflection of quality improvement.

In 2004, a national survey was performed to determine the anticipated steps that nursing homes would take in reaction to bad NHC quality scores. Only four percent of the 724 nursing homes that responded to the study cited a change in price, and those that did imply an increase in price (Mukamel et al. 2007). At the beginning of the 1990s, physicians responded to the New York State Cardiac Surgery Reports. This stands in contrast to their responses. According to Mukamel and Mushlin (1998), physicians who reported greater risk-adjusted death rates following coronary artery bypass graft surgery also had higher rates of subsequent growth in charges.

In response to NHC, there is an increase in the amount of empirical research that focuses on quality-related actions. The majority of respondents to the Mukamel et al. (2007) survey were aware of NHC and had studied the rationale and reasons for their NHC quality ratings. However, a significantly smaller number of respondents reported being aware of changes in protocols, work organization, resources, leadership, or other actions that could affect their quality management.

The facilities that were among those with the worst 20 percent of scores in the state were somewhat more likely to make modifications than other nursing homes; however, the difference was only significant for four out of the twenty-two conceivable actions. A different survey was conducted on nursing home administrators in four different states, and the majority of respondents stated that they would use the information provided by the NHC to strengthen quality (Castle 2005).

In other research, the effect of NHC on QMs has been shown to have a mixed range of effects. Zinn et al. (2005) found that there was a discernible decreasing trend (improvement) for five measures while there was no obvious trend for the other five QMs. This was observed from the first to the fifth quarterly reporting periods of the National Health Service. But they were unable to identify whether the changes were the result of NHC or whether they were continuations of patterns that had occurred in the past.

Over the course of the years 2001–2003, Mukamel et al. (2008b) analyzed the performance of nursing homes on five of the QMs both before and after the implementation of NHC. When compared to the previous time period, the results of the NHC showed statistically significant improvements in two of the five measures (restraints and short-term pain), while the results showed a worsening in one of the measures (pressure ulcers). In a similar vein, Werner et al. (2009) discovered that some postacute quality of life (QM) improvements were greater for nursing homes that were subject to NHC reporting than they were for smaller nursing homes that were not involved in the reporting process. Last but not least, Castle, Engberg, and Liu (2007) discovered that several NHC quality outcomes improved over the course of one year, but approximately the same number of quality outcomes deteriorated.

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